摘要：Coal petrology provides significant inputs for the industrial utilisation of coal and for broad understanding the coal formation and diagenesis. The present paper entails the results of the investigations carried out on the selected coal samples, from Ib valley and Umaria coalfield, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction?(XRD) to study the surface microstructures and minerals present in them and the relationship of the finely dispersed mineral matter with the organic constituents. This would further help in evaluating the distribution and chemical character of the mineral matter occurring within the maceral types. Ib valley and Umaria coals are typical Indian (Lower Gondwana) non-coking coals and only scanty data is available on SEM study of these coals. Under SEM examination, it manifests that, the mineral matters of these coal occur as deep intergrowth, massive impregnation, superficial mounting, filling and depletion of micropores, mechanical cavity filling and fusinitic cavity filling.
摘要：A mutualistic relationship between grasses, coal-degrading fungi, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was proposed to account for the phyto-biodegradation of coal discard. In this study pot trial experiments were carried out to confirm transformation of the carbonaceous substrate, in the presence of a suite of coal degrading fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, into a humic-enriched soil-like material in the Cynodon dactylon/coal rhizosphere. The results show that after 47 weeks of C. dactylon growth on coal discard the concentration of humics increased from (62.9?±?1.5) to (112.1?±?5.4) mg/kg. Substrate humic acid-like substance concentration positively correlated (r2?=?0.95) with accumulation of above ground C. dactylon biomass. FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted humic-like substances confirmed both product identity and increased oxidation of the coal discard substrate. Substrate ash content and electrical conductivity declined coincident with an increase in humic acid-like substance concentration, which together reduced the intensity of acidity in the C. dactylon/coal discard rhizosphere. These observations support the proposal that biological oxidative degradation of coal discard leads to increased humic-like substance concentration and formation of a soil-like material. Results have profound implications for use of coal discard as an organic substrate to replace topsoil in phyto-bioremediation strategies for sustainable large-scale rehabilitation of coal discard dumps.
摘要：Mercury is one of the most concerned hazardous elements in coals. 1018 coal samples of different coal-forming periods, coal-accumulating areas and coal ranks all over the country were collected to study the distributions of mercury in Chinese coals. The modes of occurrence of mercury were studied with float-sink experiments of 10 coals from different basins in China and correlation analyses were conducted between concentrations of mercury and maceral and sulfur contents, as well as the ash yield. The theoretic concentrations and affinities of mercury in vitrinite, inertinite, clay and pyrite were then calculated following the methods proposed by Solari. The weighted average concentration of mercury in Chinese coals is 0.154?μg/g, which is similar to that in the word coals in general. The mercury concentrations vary largely in the coals of different coal-forming period and coal-accumulating areas as geological settings play key roles in determining the geochemistry of mercury. The concentrations of mercury in coals from south and southwest China and those from North China of C3–P1 are relatively higher while those from North China of J1–2 and Northeast of J3–K1 relatively lower. The general distribution trends of mercury are very similar to that of ash yield, sulfur contents in coals. Pyrite is the dominant carrier of mercury in most coals, especially in some high-sulfur coals with abundant epigenetic pyrite formed during diagenesis and metamorphism. Mercury has higher affinity to vitrinite than to inertinite in most coals, which accords with the geological origin of macerals and geochemistry of mercury.
摘要：An efficient resource model updating framework concept was proposed aiming for the improvement of raw material quality control and process efficiency in any type of mining operation. The concept integrates sensor data measured online on the production line into the resource or grade/quality control model and continuously provides locally more accurate estimates. The concept has been applied in a lignite field with the aim of identifying local impurities in a coal seam and to improve the prediction of coal quality attributes in neighbouring blocks. A significant improvement was demonstrated which led to better coal quality management. So far, the proposed concept and the application in coal mining was limited to a case where online measurements were unambiguously trackable due to a single extraction face being the point of origin for the material. This contribution presents an extension to the case, where characteristics from blended material, originating from two or three simultaneously operating extraction faces, are measured. The challenge tackled in this contribution is the updating of local coal quality estimates in different production benches based on measurements of a blended material stream. For a practical application of the updating concept, which is based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter, a simple method for generating prior ensemble members based on block geometries defined in the short-term model and the variogram, is discussed. This method allows for a fast, semi-automated and rather simple generation of prior models instead of generating a fully simulated deposit model using conditional simulation in geostatistics. It should foster operational implementation in an industrial environment. The main purpose of this article is to investigate the applicability of the developed framework with a simplified prior resource model. In addition to this any model improvements due to the integration of sensor data obtained by observing a blend of coal from multiple extraction faces is investigated.
摘要：The mechanical properties and acoustic emission characteristics of thick hard roof sandstone were investigated. Samples were taken from the 30.87-m thick sandstone roof in a mine in the Shengdong coal field, China. Firstly, the composition and microscopic characteristics were analyzed by XRD and FE-SEM, respectively. Moreover, the indirect tensile test, uniaxial compression test, three axis compression experiment and AE test are carried out by using RMT-150C mechanics experiment system with DS5-8B AE test system. The experiment results indicate that the main framework particles of sandstone are quartz and feldspar, and mainly quartz. Cements are mainly pyrite, kaolinite, chlorite and zeolite cross needle, clinochlore, and clay minerals. The microstructure of sandstone is very dense, with few pores and high cementation degree. The tensile strength, compressive strength and elastic modulus of sandstone are 4.825, 85.313?MPa, 13.814?GPa, respectively, so the sandstone belongs to hard rock. The AE cumulative counts of sandstone can be divided into three phases: relatively flat growth period, rapid growth period and spurt period. The signal strength of AE waveform can be used as a warning signal. In the tensile fracture zone, the warning value is 0.4?mV, and in the compression shear failure zone, it is 4?mV. The numbers of cumulative counts of AE under different stress conditions have obvious difference. Moreover, the growth of cumulative counts of acoustic emission is more obvious when the stress is more than 60% of the peak stress.
摘要：For the thorough research on coal metamorphism impact on gas adsorption capacity, this paper collected and summarized parameters of experimental adsorption isotherms, coal maceral, proximate analysis and ultimate analysis obtained from National Engineering Research Center of Coal Gas Control and related literatures at home and abroad, systematically discussed the coal rank effect on its physicochemical properties and methane adsorption capacity, in which the coal rank was shown in Vitrinite reflectance, furthermore, obtained the Semi-quantitative relationship between physicochemical properties of coal and methane adsorption capacity.
摘要：The phenomenon of coal spontaneous combustion is one of the common hazards in coal mines and also one of the important reasons for the loss of coal in piles and mines. Based on previous researches, different types of coals have different spontaneous combustion characteristics. For coal loss prevention, a measure is necessary for prediction of coal spontaneous combustion. In this study, a new engineering classification system called ‘‘Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential Index (CSCPI)’’ is presented based on the Fuzzy Delphi Analytic Hierarchy Process (FDAHP) approach. CSCPI classifies coals based on their spontaneous combustion capability. After recognition of the roles of the effective parameters influencing the initiation of a spontaneous combustion, a series of intrinsic, geological, and mining characteristics of coal seams are investigated. Then, the main stages of the implementation of the FDAHP method are studied and the weight of each parameter involved is calculated. A classification list of each parameter is formed, the CSCPI system is described, and the engineering classifying system is subsequently presented. In the CSCPI system, each coal seam can be rated by a number from 0 to 100; a higher number implies a greater ease for the coal spontaneous combustion capability. Based on the CSCPI system, the propensity of spontaneous combustion of coal can be classified into three potential levels: low, medium, and high. Finally, using the events of coal spontaneous combustion occurring in one of the Iranian coal mines, Eastern Alborz Coal Mines, an initial validation of the mentioned systematic approach is conducted. Comparison of the results obtained in this study illustrate a relatively good agreement.
摘要：As an explosion control measure, rock dusting has been used in underground coal mines in many major coal producing countries with different standards. The effectiveness of the rock dust in reducing explosion intensity has been proven by historic events and laboratory experiments. The main functions of rock dust in controlling mine explosions (i.e., isolator, physical heat sink and chemical energy absorber) have been quantitatively studied and results are presented in this paper.
摘要：The present paper entails the results of the investigations carried out on the lignite deposits of Kachchh Basin. The lignite samples were drawn from five lignite seams from Panandhro lignite field (Seam-I to -V) and eight lignite seams (Seam-I to -VIII) from the Matanomadh lignite field which are currently operational. The petrographic analysis of the lignites indicates a dominance of huminite group of macerals which is mainly contributed by ulminite-A, ulminite-B, attrinite, densinite, and phlobaphinite. Liptinite (chiefly sporinite, cutinite, resinite, and liptodetrinite) and inertinite (chiefly fusinite, funginite, and inertodetrinite) groups occur in subordinated amount. The mineral matter occurs in moderate concentration. Though sulfur content is high in these lignites, there is no fixed trend of variation of sulfur from bottom seam to top seam. The investigation reveals a flooded forest swamp having high rate of degradation. However, there were a few drier periods indicated by relatively more inertinite macerals. The petrography-based models indicate that the Kachchh lignites of Gujarat evolved in coastal marshy setting under transgressive phase. However, there were few intermittent fluvial activities giving rise to supratidal flood plain. This led to the formation of the associated carbonaceous shales in the basin.
摘要：Mine reclamation bonds are used in countries with mineral mining to ensure that reclamation of the mined area is completed. The United States, Canada, and Australia are countries with established mine reclamation bond programs, with the United States coal system having been in place since 1977. China implemented a bonding system in 1998 and by 2013 all 31 provinces had established a system. An effective bonding system must be conditioned on fair and enforceable nationwide reclamation standard, stimulate companies to conduct reclamation by forming economic incentives rather than penalties that become a liability, and allow for full public participation. Based on these principles, this paper compares seven important factors for a successful reclamation bonding system: laws and regulations, administrative authority, bond types, bond size, calculation method, bond release, and public participation. The results show variation in policies and procedures for bonding among countries. Using principles and policies primarily from the United States, China should establish a national reclamation bonding system with legislation that forms a national authority to oversee and enforce reclamation standards and bond requirements. In addition, China can expand bond financial types and strategies, set the size of reclamation bonds at the level of a third-party reclamation cost, and set unified standards for calculation. Phased bond release should be established with specific reclamation criteria for each phase of release. Finally, bonding regulations should clearly identify opportunities for full public participation in the process.